Urgensi dan Mekanisme Biosintesis Metabolit Sekunder Mikroba Laut

Risa Nofiani


Marine microorganism is one of biologically active potential resources of secondary metabolites. Its potency areso promising that the knowledge of how its secondary metabolite occured need to be studied and collected. Thoseknowledges will enable further study is improving secondary metabolite production in the laboratory. In nature,secondary metabolites synthesis occur when there are effect of both biotic and abiotic factors such as sea waterand microbe symbiosis with other living materials. When this is explained in metabolic pathways, secondarymetabolite synthesis affected by available nutrient and regulated by autoinducer molecules through quorum sensingmechanism


autoinducer, marine microorganism, quorum-sensing, secondary metabolite, symbiotic

Full Text:



Amstrong, E. ,Yan, L., Boud, K.G., Wright, P.C, & Burgess, J.G. 2001. The symbiotic role of marine microbes on living surfaces. Hydrobiologia 461:37-40.

Barry, K.J. & Wainwright, N.R. 1997. Biosynthetic induction of a secondary metabolites by a marine bacterum under nutritional stress: potential role of the incomplete oxidation of an organic acid. Bioll Bull 193:274-275.

Bibb, M.J. 2005. Regulation of secondary metabolism in streptomycetes. Curr Opin Microbiol 8: 208-215.

Bruhn, J.B., Nielsen, K.F., Hjelm, M., Hansen, M., Bresciani, J., Schulz, S. & Gram, L. 2005. Ecology, inhibitory activity, and morphogenesis of a marine antagonistic bacterium belonging to the roseobacter clade. Appl Microbiol Environ 71: 7263-7270.

Burgess, J.G. Jordan, E.M. Bregu, M. Mearns-Spragg, A. & Boyd, K.G. 1999. Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural product research. J Biotechnol 70:27-32.

Chakraburtty, R. & Bibb, M.J. 1997. The ppGpp Synthetase gene (relA) of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) plays a conditional role in antibiotic production and morphological differentiation. J Bacteriol 179: 5854-5861.

Chelossi, E., Milanese, M., Milano, A., Pronzato, R. & Riccardi, G. 2004, Characterisation and antimicrobial activity of epibiotic bacteria from Petrosia ficiformis (porifera, demosponsiae). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 309: 21-33.

Claire, A.S. Rittschof, D. Gerhart, D.J. Hooper, I.R. & Bonaventura, J. 1999. Anti-settlement and narcotic action of analogues of diterpene marine natural product antifoulant from octocarals. Mar Biotechnol 1: 427-436.

El-Sayed, A.K., Hothersall, J. & Thomas, C.M. 2001. Quorum- sensing-dependent regulation of biosynthesis of the polyketide antibiotic mupirocin in Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 10586. Microbiol 147: 2127-2139.

Gonzalez, J.E & Marketon, M.M. 2003. Quorum sensing in Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67: 574- 592.

Gudbjarnason, S. 1999. Bioactive Marine Natural Product. Rit Fiskideilar 16:107-110.

Gutterson, N. Ziegle, J.S., Warren, G.W. & Layton, T.J. 1988. Genetic determinants for catabolite induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens HV37a. J Bacteriol 170: 380-385.

Horinouchi, S., & Beppu, T. 1992. Autoregulatory factors and communication in actinomycetes. Annu Rev Microbiol 46: 377-398.

Kokare, C.R., Mahadik, K.R., Kadam, S.S. & Chopade, B.S. 2004. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of marine halophilic Actinopolyspora species AH1 from the west coast of India. Curr Sci 86:593-597.

Long, R.A. & Azam, F. 2001. Antagonistic Interactions among marine pelagic bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 4975- 4983.

Martin, J.F. 2004. Phosphate control of the biosynthesis of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites is mediated by the PhoR-PhoP System: an Unfinished Story. J. Bacteriol 186 (16): 5197-5201.

Muller, W.E.G., Schroder, H.J. & Wiens, M. 2004. Approaches for a sustainable exploitation of biodiversity (secondary metabolites ans biomaterials from sponses) in traditional and modern biomedical prospecting:part ii-the benefits. eCAM 1:133-144.

Okami, Y. 1982. Potential use of marine microorganisms for antibiotics and enzyme production. Pure & Appl Chem 54:1951-1962.

Prochnow, A.M., Evans, F., Saludes, D.D., Stelzer, S., Egan, S., James, S., Webb, J.S. & Kjelleberg, S. 2004. Biofilm development and cell death in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicate. Appl Environ Microbiol 70: 3232-3238.

Schroder, H.C., Ushijima, H., Krasko, A., Gamulin, V., Sh utze, J. & M ul ler, I. M . 2003. Em ergence and disappearance of an immun molecule, an antimicrobial lectin, in basal metazoa: the achylectin family. J Biol Chem 278: 32810-32817.

Shiba, T. & Taga, N. 1980. Heterotrophic bacteria attached to seaweeds. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 47:251-258.

Tabarez, M .R. 2005. Discovery of the new antimicrobial compound 7-o-malonyl macrolactin a. Dissertation Van Der Gemeinsamen Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultat. Jerman: Universitat Carolo-Wilhelmina.

Thakur, N.L., Hensschel, U., Krasko, A., Anil, A.C. & Muller, W.E.G. 2003. Antibcterial activity of the sponse suberites domuncula and its primmorphs: potential basis for chemical defense. Aquatic Microbiol Ecol 31: 77-83.

Wiens, M., Luckas, B., Brummer, F., Ammar, M.S.A., Steffen,R. & Batel, R. 2003. Okadaic acid: a potential defense molecule for the sponse Suberites domuncula. Mar Biol 142: 213-223.

Yan, L., Boyd, K.G. & Burgess, J.G. 2002. Surface attachment induced production of antimicrobial compounds by marine epiphytic bacteria using modified roller bottle cultivation. Mar Biotecnol 4: 356-366.

Yan, L., Boyd, K.G., Adams, D.R. & Burgess, J.G. 2003. Biofilm- specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in bacilli. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 3719-3727.

Zheng, L., Chen, H., Han, X., Lin, W. & Yan, X. 2005. Antimicrobial screening and active compound isolation from marine bacterium NJ6-3-1 associated with the sponse Hymeniacidon perleve. World journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 21:201-206.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31258/jnat.10.2.120-125


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2012 Risa Nofiani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.