Inhibition Test of Hot Water Extract of Rhizophora apiculata Leaves Against Edwardsiella tarda Bacteria in-Vitro

Ronal Kurniawan, Sri Wahyuni, Fitrian Armando


One of the plants that have the potential as antibacterial ingredients is Rhizophora apiculata leaf because it contains secondary metabolites, such as tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids. This study aims to find out the inhibition of hot water extract of R. apiculata leaves in inhibiting the growth of Edwardsiella tarda. The research method used is an experimental method which includes sample preparation, extraction, antibacterial activity test using the Kirby-Bauer disc method and applying a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The doses used were 100% (10000 ppm), 90% (9000 ppm), 80% (8000 ppm), 70% (7000 ppm), 60% (6000 ppm), 50% (5000 ppm), 40% (4000 ppm), 30% (3000 ppm), 20% (2000 ppm), 10% (1000 ppm) and control (Oxytetracycline). The results showed that the hot water extract of R. apiculata leaves at a dose of 1000-10000 ppm gave various inhibitory diameters ranging from 6.25-10.08 mm and the clear zone formed was classified as medium


Edwardsiellosis; Rhizophora apiculata; Antibacteria.

Full Text:



Austin, B., and Austin, D.A., 2007. Bacterial Fish Pathogens: Diseases of Farmed and Wild Fish. Praxis Publishing Ltd., Chichester

Baym, M., Stone, L.K., Kishony, R., 2016. Multidrug evolutionary strategies to reverse antibiotic resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 351:aad3292. 10.1126/science.aad3292

Bera, K.K., Kumar, S., Paul, T., Prasad, K.P., Shukla, S.P., Kumar, K., 2020. Triclosan induces immunosuppression and reduces survivability of striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus during the challenge to a fish pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda. Enviromental Research, 186:109575.

Butar-Butar, O.D., Suryanto, D., Ilyas, S., 2020. Detection of Edwardsiella tarda Infection of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Central Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 13(1): 6-13.

Cabello F.C., Godfrey H.P., Buschmann A.H., Dölz, H.J., (2016). Aquaculture as yet another environmental gateway to the development and globalisation of antimicrobial resistance. Lancet Infect. Dis. 16 e127–e133.

Dewi, F.K., 2010. Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Buah Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L) terhadap Bakteri Pembusuk Daging Segar. Skripsi. FMIPA. Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta. 38 hlm.

Du B., Yang Q., Wang R., Wang R., Wang Q., Xin Y., 2019. Evolution of antibiotic resistance and the relationship between the antibiotic resistance genes and microbial compositions under long-term exposure to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16:4681. 10.3390/ijerph16234681

Fadillah, N., Waspodo, S., Azhar, F., 2019. The Addition of Mangrove Leaf Extract Rhizophora apiculata in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for Vibriosis Prevention. Journal of Aquaculture Science, 4(2):91-101.

Gao, Y., Chen, Z., Yao, W., Li, D., Fu, X., 2021. Gentmicin Combined with Hypoionic Shock Rapidly Eradicates Aquaculture Bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Front. Microbiol. 12:64186. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.641846

Haenen O. L., Evans J. J., Berthe F., 2013. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses. Rev. Sci. Tech. 32 497–507. 10.20506/rst.32.2.2245

Health Canada., 2008. Edwardsiella tarda—Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Public Health Agency of Canada.

Kotob, M.H., Menanteau-Ledouble, S., Kumar, G., Abdelzaher, M., El-Matbouli, M., 2017. Erratum to: the impact of co-infections on fish: a review. Vet. Res. 48:26.

Lafferty, K.D., Harvell, C.D., Conrad, J.M., Friedman, C.S., Kent, M.L., Kuris, A.M., et al., (2015). Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 7 471–496. 10.1146/annurev-marine-010814-015646

Lee, S.W., Wendy, W., 2017. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp). Veterinary World, 10(7): 803-807. 10.14202/vetworld.2017.803-807

Little, D.C., Newton, R.W., Beveridge, M.C., 2016. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 75, 274–286.

Negara, A.A., 2013. Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Bakau Hitam Rhizophora mucronata terhadap Bakteri Penyebab Diare. Skripsi. Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. 28 hlm.

Nuraina., 2015. Uji Aktivitas Antimikroba Ekstrak Daun Garcinia benthami Pierre dengan Metode Dilusi. Skripsi. Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. Jakarta. 36 hlm.

Ogbonne, F.C., Ukazu, E.R., Egbe, F.C., 2018. Antibiotics Resistance Pattern and Plasmid Profiling of Edwardsiella tarda Isolated from Heterobranchus longifilis. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6(4): 95-105.

Poompozhil, S., Kumarasamy, D., 2014. Studies on Phytochemical Constituents of Some Selected Mangroves. J of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), 10 (2): 2.

Santos, L., Ramos, F., 2018. Antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture: current knowledge and alternatives to tackle the problem. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 52 135–143.

Seran, F., Jasmanindar, Y., Salosso, Y., 2022. Phytochemical testing and antibacterial activity of binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia) against Vibrio alginolyticus bacteria in-vitro. Jurnal Aquatik, 5(1): 1-8

Sherif, A.H., Gouda, M.Y., Al-Sokary, E.T., Elseify, M.M., 2021. Lactobacillus plantarum enhances immunity of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Aquaculture Research, 52(3): 1001-1012.

Syawal, H., Hakim, L., Effendi, I., 2020. Phytochemical analysis of Rhizophora apiculata leaf extract and its inhibitory action against Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. AACL Bioflux, 13(4): 2242-2249

Syawal, H., Karnila, R., Dirta, A., Kurniawan, R., 2017. Ekstrak Daun Rhizophora sp. Menghambat Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus agalactiae dan Edwarsiella tarda. Jurnal Veteriner, 18(4): 604-609

Syawal, H., Yuharmen., Kurniawan, R., 2019. Sensitivitas Ekstrak Daun Rhizophora apiculata dalam Menghambat Pertumbuhan Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Jurnal Ruaya, 7(2): 34-38

Verjan, N., Ikuo, H. and Takashi, A., 2005. Genetic Loci of Major Antigenic Protein Genes of Edwardsiella tarda. Journal of Applied Environmental Microbiology, 71, 5654-5658.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Ronal Kurniawan, Sri Wahyuni, Fitrian Armando

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.